Dual Agency in Massachusetts Real Estate

Dual Agency in Massachusetts Real Estate

Understanding who represents your interests during a real estate transaction could be as crucial as choosing the right property. This is where dual agency in Massachusetts steps onto the stage, a concept eliciting ardent defenders and insistent critics.

Both buyers and sellers might find themselves drawn into this double-edged sword, surrounded by pitfalls that seriously outweigh any benefits.

Read on to unravel how dual agency can be your veil of uncertainty in the real estate battlefield, depending on how well-informed you are. From heightened convenience to risk of conflict, we dissect the pros and cons for both sides of the deal.

Dual agency in real estate occurs when one agent represents both the buyer and the seller in a transaction.

This can create potential conflicts of interest as the agent must balance the needs of both parties. While it may offer faster communication and some cost savings, buyers and sellers must understand that their best interests will not be represented in a dual agency arrangement.

It is recommended to seek separate representation to ensure each party is appropriately advocated for throughout the transaction process.

From three decades of experience being a Realtor, consumers should avoid dual agency at all costs. Any benefits received come nowhere close to the downsides. Frankly, dual agency is bad and should be made illegal in more states than what exists.

Buyers and sellers must understand that you have no representation with a dual agent. By law, real estate agents are prohibited from providing either party with any advice. They must remain completely neutral in the transaction.

The last time I checked, most people hire a real estate agent for guidance and expertise. With dual agency, you get none unless it’s done illegally.

One party benefits from dual agency in real estate – the Realtor.

Understanding Dual Agency in Massachusetts

How Does Dual Agency Work in Massachusetts?

In real estate transactions, it’s vital to be aware of the concept of dual agency. This practice occurs when a single agent or different agents within the same brokerage represent both the buyer and seller in a home purchase.

The latter is acceptable as each consumer has complete representation. It’s called a designated agency.

The former is not, as they have none. For example, if a seller allows dual agency, their listing agent would become neutral and no longer represent them.

You will not be represented when buying a house if you go directly to the listing agent.

While it can offer some potential advantages, such as faster communication and extensive knowledge of the property, dual agency also raises concerns about conflicts of interest and whether the needs of both parties are being fully represented.

To illustrate, imagine you’re interested in purchasing a charming house listed by an agent from a prominent Massachusetts real estate firm. Unbeknownst to you, that same agent also represents the sellers.

In this scenario, you would be experiencing dual agency without even realizing it. Maximum Real Estate Exposure summarizes well the difference between dual and designated agency.

Now that we have a basic understanding of dual agency, let’s explore its definition and how it works more explicitly.

Definition & How It Works

Dual agency in real estate refers to when one agent or different agents within the same brokerage represent both the buyer and seller in a transaction. This means that the agent must act in the best interests of both parties involved.

However, many experts argue that dual agency creates conflicts of interest because it’s impossible for an agent to prioritize competing interests simultaneously.

When working under dual agency in Massachusetts, an agent remains neutral in negotiations between the buyer and seller.

They may facilitate communication between the two parties but must avoid disclosing confidential information that could give either side an advantage. This fiduciary duty extends to maintaining confidentiality even after the transaction is complete.

Dual Agency is Illegal in Some States For Good Reason

It’s important to note that dual agency is illegal or heavily restricted in certain states like Alaska, Colorado, Florida, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Vermont, and Wyoming due to concerns about impartiality and client representation. These regulations highlight the potential risks associated with this practice.

After understanding what dual agency means and how it functions in real estate transactions, let’s further examine the concept of confidentiality and fiduciary duties in double agency scenarios.

  • According to the National Association of Realtors, over half of total property transactions typically involve dual agency. However, it is essential to know many of these are NOT one agent representing both the buyer and seller, but two agents each from the same company.
  • A 2019 Consumer Federation of America report revealed that most homebuyers and sellers are unaware of the different types of real estate agencies. Specifically, more than 50% don’t realize that dual agency exists.
  • Dual agency is illegal or heavily regulated in 8 states – Alaska, Colorado, Florida, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Vermont, and Wyoming, per State Regulation Guidelines on Real Estate Practices.

Confidentiality and Fiduciary Duties

Regarding dual agency in real estate, there are important considerations regarding confidentiality and fiduciary duties.

In a typical transaction, each party has its agent bound by fiduciary duties to act in their best interests. However, with dual agency, the same agent works with both the buyer and seller, which can potentially compromise the duty of confidentiality.

Confidentiality is a crucial component of the client-agent relationship as it allows clients to share sensitive information without fear of being disclosed to the opposing party.

Dual agency can introduce conflicts of interest and make it challenging for an agent to entirely protect the confidential information entrusted to both parties. There is a risk that they may accidentally reveal sensitive details or use privileged information to the advantage of one party over the other.

That said, ethical agents always strive to maintain confidentiality to the best of their abilities. They must be transparent about potential limitations regarding privacy and ensure that both parties agree and understand the implications before proceeding with dual agency representation.

The Agent You’re Working With Has An Extreme Incentive to Close The Sale

If you don’t understand anything else, please realize this. When working in a single-agent dual-agency relationship, the agent has a powerful interest in closing the sale at all costs.

There is a double commission waiting at closing. Remember, in a typical agency relationship in Massachusetts, you would get advice from your agent.

For example, if you have a buyer’s agent, they are working for you. They provide you with advice based on your goals. They inform you about problems with a property you’re interested in buying.

The agent researches things you should know, like if the seller pulled building permits or if a sex offender is living in the neighborhood. A Massachusetts dual agent can do none of these things.

A buyer’s agent’s goal isn’t for you to buy a house but for the right one!

Why I Don’t Practice Dual Agency

The concept of dual agency in Massachusetts has never sat well with me. You either practice it or you don’t. Many years ago, I asked myself, why would a seller want me to go from being their representative offering exceptional advice to no longer representing them?

Any seller with half a brain wouldn’t. The seller would be paying thousands in commission for my guidance and expertise. Do you think they want to spend that kind of money for me to be a neutral party offering them nothing? I think not.

When the concept of dual agency is explained to a seller accurately, most would never accept it. Unfortunately, the average agent in Massachusetts doesn’t explain it. Why would they – agents who practice it want you to accept it.

They put an agency disclosure form in front of the homeowner and ask them to sign it. Folks, that is an awful real estate agent.

It’s someone who cares more about the chance to double-side a sale than what’s best for their client.

Advantages of Dual Agency in Massachusetts

Are there any pros to dual agency in Massachusetts? Not enough for anyone to ever consider it.

Pundits for it will say there is a potential for a lower commission.

Let’s say a property is listed by one agent representing the seller and buyer in a dual-agency arrangement. The agent can negotiate a reduced commission rate since they earn both sides’ commission. This cost-saving factor can appeal to clients looking to maximize their financial gain or minimize expenses during a transaction.

Ok, fantastic. Let me ask you this – if I said you could save $3000 in commission but would be overpaying for a house by $10,000 or just purchased in a high crime area, would that be worth it the so called savings?

You should be thinking, NOT a chance!

Another potential advantage would be if the agent you’re working with has a house not listed for sale, and they let you know about it before others. That might be a benefit to you, but certainly not to the sellers.

Unfortunately, many sellers are too naive to realize this. If I told you that you could have one or five buyers who want to make an offer on your home, what would you choose? Enough said!

To summarize:

Advantages of Dual Agency
Lower sales commissions
Broader market of properties


Despite these potential benefits, it’s essential to approach dual agency with caution and careful consideration. The potential advantages must be weighed against the conflicts of interest and the compromised representation that can arise in a dual-agency scenario.

Drawbacks of Dual Agency in Massachusetts

Dual agency can give rise to conflicts of interest that may undermine the fiduciary duties owed to buyers and sellers. Ensuring that each client’s best interests are fully represented with only one agent representing both parties becomes impossible.

There is an inherent risk that confidential information shared by either party could unintentionally be used against them during negotiations.

In addition, negotiating terms can become tricky in dual-agency situations. The agent must navigate the fine line between advocating for each client’s interests and maintaining fairness and impartiality. This delicate balance can be challenging to achieve and may result in compromised negotiations that do not fully satisfy either party.

While some argue that dual agencies can benefit buyers and sellers by streamlining communication and expediting the transaction, clients must remain vigilant and look out for their best interests.

Dual agency should be approached cautiously. Seeking independent representation, such as hiring separate agents or enlisting legal guidance, may provide protection.

Potential Conflict of Interest & Negotiation Issues

Potential conflicts of interest and negotiation issues can arise for buyers and sellers. Conflict of interest is crucial because the agent representing both parties may have divided loyalties or biased advice.

The agent’s primary goal should be to secure the best outcome for their client, but in a dual-agency situation, this isn’t possible.

For example, if a buyer wants to negotiate a lower price but the seller wants to hold firm, the agent may be torn between the two parties. This conflict can create challenges in reaching mutually acceptable agreements.

Imagine you’re a seller represented by an agent working with a potential buyer on another property.

Your agent may have access to sensitive information about your motivation to sell or your bottom line price, which could then be used against you when negotiating with that buyer. This creates an imbalance in negotiations and puts you at a disadvantage.

Navigating negotiations in dual-agency transactions can be tricky as well. Since the agent must remain neutral, they may not advocate as aggressively as they would if representing only one party.

As a result, buyers and sellers might feel like their interests are not fully represented. You may find that compromises made during negotiations may not fully align with your needs.

Buyers and sellers must cautiously approach dual agency transactions in Massachusetts. You’ll need to evaluate whether they feel comfortable with potential conflicts of interest.

Now that we’ve explored the potential conflict of interest and negotiation issues associated with dual agency, let’s discuss some tips for effectively navigating these types of transactions.

Summary of Pros and Cons

Here are the pros and cons of dual agency in Massachusetts summarized.


  1. Potential commission savings: The agent may give one or both parties a fee reduction.
  2. Direct communication: With one agent, you can get quicker answers to questions.


  1. Conflict of interest: There is an inherent conflict of interest because an agent cannot serve two masters, each with different goals.
  2. Lack of undivided loyalty: When an agent acts as a dual agent, they cannot provide undivided loyalty to the buyer or the seller. This can make it difficult for them to negotiate effectively on behalf of their clients. It may result in decisions not fully serving their client’s interests.
  3. Limited disclosure: There are limitations on the amount of information an agent can disclose to either party. This is because the agent is privy to confidential information from the buyer and the seller. Agents must be cautious not to reveal information that could harm one party or give an unfair advantage to the other.
  4. No advocacy: No advocacy for either the buyer or the seller. The agent’s role becomes more about facilitating the transaction than advocating for their client’s best interests.
  5. Potential for unequal representation: In some cases, one party may feel that the dual agent is biased towards the other party, leading to a perception of unequal representation. This can lead to mistrust and dissatisfaction from the party who feels they are not receiving fair treatment.
  6. Limited negotiation power: Dual agency can limit an agent’s ability to negotiate effectively on behalf of their clients. They may need to strike a delicate balance between the needs and desires of both parties, resulting in compromises that may not fully benefit either party.
  7. Risk of legal issues: Massachusetts Dual agency can increase the risk of legal problems arising from potential conflicts of interest. If a dispute arises, it can be challenging to determine if the agent acted in the best interests of both parties, potentially leading to legal complications. More Realtors are sued in this situation than any other.
  8. Lack of independent advice: Clients will miss out on the opportunity to receive independent advice from their agent. They will not have access to unbiased opinions or recommendations.

Real Word Examples of What a Massachusetts Dual Agent Cannot Do

  • Provide advice to either party about an offer (Suggest what to offer or counter offer.)
  • Do research before or during negotiations
  • Counsel on home inspections
  • Take a side on any issues (must remain neutral.)
  • Disclose noticeable defects to buyers
  • Disclose financial issues a buyer may have to a seller

Tips for More Effective Dual Agency Transactions in Massachusetts

While many experts, including myself, caution against engaging in dual agency transactions due to the potential conflicts of interest, some situations may make it hard to avoid this scenario.

In such cases, here are some tips for navigating dual agency transactions effectively:

  1. Open Communication: Establish clear lines of communication with the agent and ensure they understand your expectations and priorities. Be transparent about your needs and concerns so that they can work to address them. Remember, however, the agent cannot advocate for you. Think of your agent as a “messenger” because that is all they can be.
  2. Do Your Research: Take the time to educate yourself about the real estate market, property values, and comparable sales in the area. This knowledge will enable you to make informed decisions during negotiations and protect your interests. A dual agent in Massachusetts cannot counsel you on price.
  3. Get Independent Advice: Consider seeking advice from a real estate attorney or other professionals who provide impartial guidance throughout the transaction process. They can help review documents, identify potential issues, and ensure your best interests are served.
  4. Negotiate Agreements: Clearly outline expectations and agreements in writing to minimize misunderstandings. Documenting essential details such as price, contingencies, repairs, or timelines will help ensure everyone is on the same page.
  5. Exercise Caution: Approach dual agency transactions with more skepticism and vigilance. Pay close attention to potential conflicts of interest or red flags during discussions or negotiations.

Think of it like driving through a busy intersection. You must be cautious, look out for potential hazards, and proceed with extra care to reach your destination safely.

Final Thoughts

Remember, dual agency transactions in Massachusetts can be complex and require careful consideration from all parties involved. It’s essential to assess whether this arrangement aligns with your comfort level and seek independent advice when needed.

For most consumers, it is best to avoid dual agency.